Biogas Plant In Bangladesh|Trims Power
History of Biogas Technology
The biogas production technology has been available since the early l900’s when it was used for the stabilization of organic sludge produced during the treatment of domestic sewage. It has also been used in India since 1923 and in China for a period of nearly sixty-five years. During the last 50/60 years this technology has not realized its full potential due to a number of factors Recently, there has been increasing interest in this technology, especially in the developing world. The governments of some Asian countries such as China, India, Nepal, Thailand have paid varying degree of attention to biogas technology. More than 90 per cent of presently existing biogas plants are of family size and the rest are at the farm and industrial scale. The potential of biogas technology for the replacement of traditional energy sources is highest in China (about 80 per cent) and that of India, Nepal and Thailand is about 10 per cent. Studies on biogas technology in Bangladesh are still at research level. At present about 120 fixed dome Chinese-type and about 80 floating dome Indian-type biogas plants are operating in Bangladesh. The estimated potential for generation of biogas in Bangladesh shown in Table 1 indicates that the best possible utilization of organic wastes through biogas generation can supply clean energy to cook three meals for a population of about 76 million, which is about 66 per cent of the total population of Bangladesh. The daily fertilizer contribution would be equivalent to 2,785 tons of urea, 7,030 tons of superphosphate and 1,280 tons of muricate of potash.
Biogas Technology Use in Bangladesh
There are many technologies available today to deal with the problem of excessive use of biomass for household energy consumption in rural areas of developing countries. These can include solar, wind, hydro power, tidal power etc. Many of these technologies are well suited in specific areas based on the natural resources available there. However, a common problem for the majority of these technologies are that they are often associated with very high initial capital costs and a dependency on foreign financing and expertise. One solution that has proven it to be very useful in most areas in Bangladesh is the use of biogas. Biogas is produced when organic material is digested in an anaerobic environment. The organic materials, substrates, typically consist of kitchen waste, human excreta, cattle manure, waste water, agricultural residues etc. The most common biogas plants used in 80 developing countries are small household based fixed dome models. They are cheap to build and can be constructed by using materials available locally. Household biogas plants commonly use kitchen, toilet waste and cattle manure. Generally, in Bangladesh there are three types of basic designs of biogas plants are used.They are given below
o Floating cover digester
o Fixed cover digester
o Plastic cover digester.
The relevance of biogas technology in Bangladesh lies in the fact that it makes the best possible utilization of various organic wastes as a renewable and perpetual source of clean energy in the rural and semi-urban areas and provides environmental sanitation. Thus, the quality of life in rural and semi-urban communities; can be improved by providing comprehensive sanitation and energy development policies. However, present experience of implementing this technology in Bangladesh indicates that there is an urgent need to develop an indigenous technical expertise, together with strong national coordination among different implementing authorities and research institutions to diffuse the technology in a meaningful way.